11. Crafts and the Marketplace



بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى ءاله وصحبه أجمعين وسلّم




Title: Lecture 11 - Crafts and the Marketplace

Author: T. S. Andersson

Publication date: 16/11/2013


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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى ءاله وصحبه أجمعين

Lecture 11: Crafts and the Marketplace

Introduction

The importance of commerce and trade in the Islamic tradition is apparent from its prominent role in scholarship, particularly in the works of fiqh. In classical as well as modern works of history, however, the economic aspect of the spread of Islam has often been overlooked in favour of military and political events. Although sources acknowledge that the advent of Islam brought about radical economic changes, we seldom find information about the nature of this economy in the daily lives of the companions and their followers. The research on early social history is increasing, but many contemporary historians have, so far, found the apparent lack of documented evidence of early economics a reason to give priority to religious, political and military history. 

In this lecture, we seek to balance the picture of the early community and their daily transactions. Our purpose is not to discuss the overall economy of the early Islamic polity, but rather to focus on one economic feature, in one specific place, during one specific time: crafts and occupations in Madina at the time of the first generations of Muslims. The early sources – ḥadīth, sīra and other historical works – contain a great deal of information about how the Madinans made their living by crafts and trading in the marketplaces. Apart from perhaps among scholars of ḥadīth and sīra, however, information about these daily activities are seldom encountered. Due to the lack of previous studies, the main purpose of this lecture is to summarise the different crafts and occupations that were practised in Madinan society at the time of the Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It also includes questions regarding, for instance, transmission of crafts, roles of men and women, attitudes and prestige, marketplace transactions and legal regulations. We will also briefly touch upon the question of how later political, economic and social developments related to the history of crafts in Madina. But to be able to contextualise this information, some theoretical perspectives are necessary. 


A theoretical framework

Before examining the crafts, we will mention a few aspects concerning the history of crafts and trading in general. If we turn to Ibn Khaldūn’s al-Muqaddima, we find a theoretical framework that will help us organise the facts and conceptualise the developments in Madinan society. The choice of Ibn Khaldūn is not arbitrary. It is not, as some scholars would argue, because he resembles our modern scientific approaches. Quite the opposite, he is useful because he provides an alternative way of thinking, one that is closer to the historical object of our study. It will also teach us about pre-modern approaches to the same questions that concern us today. It may even challenge many of the assumptions that we ourselves hold. Firstly, he defines the basis for our subject, livelihood or making a living (ma'āsh):

It should be known that "livelihood (making a living)" means the desire for sustenance and the effort to obtain it. "Livelihood" (ma'āsh) is a maf'al formation from ‘aysh "life." The idea is that ‘aysh "life" is obtained only through the things (that go into making a living), and they are therefore considered, with some exaggeration, "the place of life."1

He notes that there are different levels of crafts – simple and composite – where the simple ones concern the necessities and the composite concern luxuries.2 In all civilisations, the necessary crafts take precedence in instruction, because of the large demand for them to be transmitted. He writes:

The mind, (however,) does not cease transforming all kinds of (crafts), including the composite ones, from potentiality into actuality through the gradual discovery of one thing after the other, until they are perfect. This is not achieved all at one stroke. It is achieved in the course of time and of generations. Things are not transformed from potentiality into actuality all at one stroke, especially not technical matters. Consequently, a certain amount of time is unavoidable. Therefore, the crafts are found to be inferior in small cities, and only the simple (crafts) are found there. When sedentary civilization in (those cities) increases, and luxury conditions there cause the use of the crafts, they are transformed from potentiality into actuality.3

This framework is useful in relation to the later developments in Madina as the city transformed from a small desert oasis into the capital of an empire. He notes that crafts “are perfected only if there exists a large and perfect sedentary civilization”4, since “as long as sedentary civilization is not complete and the city not fully organized, people are concerned only with the necessities of life, that is, with the obtaining of food, such as wheat and other things.”5 Only when a city is organised, its available labour covers and surpasses the necessities, the surplus is spent on luxuries and more advanced crafts develop. He illustrates with two examples pertaining to our subject:

A small or Bedouin civilization needs only the simple crafts, especially those used for the necessities, such as (the crafts of) the carpenter, the smith, the tailor, the butcher, or the weaver. They exist there. Still, they are neither perfect nor well developed. They exist only in as much as they are needed, since all of them are means to an end and are not intended for their own sake.6

He continues:

When civilization flourishes and the luxuries are in demand, it includes the refinement and development of the crafts. Consequently, (these crafts) are perfected with every finesse, and a number of other crafts, in addition to them, are added, as luxury-customs and conditions demand. Among (such crafts are) those of the cobbler, the tanner, the silk weaver, the goldsmith, and others. When the civilization is fully developed, these different kinds (of crafts are perfected and refined to the limit. In the cities, they become ways of making a living for those who practise them. In fact, they become the most lucrative activities there are, because urban luxury demands them. 7

When this development takes place and the sedentary culture remains a longer period of time, the crafts are firmly rooted and become an integral part of its customs, while their further development depends on the demand for it in that particular culture. Ibn Khaldūn also notes the importance of the ruling dynasty in demanding crafts and their improvement, since the dynasty in pre-modern culture are often the biggest market through which everything can be marketed, unlike the demands of the common people for a particular craft.8

Regarding the Arabian Peninsula, he states that because of the desert culture of the Arabs and its distance from sedentary civilisation, the “homelands of the Arabs and the places they took possession of in Islam had few crafts altogether, so that (crafts) had to be imported from other regions.”9 New crafts came to al-Ḥijāz from countries such as China, India, the lands of the Turks and the Christian nations at the time of the companions. Before that, however, Arab lands such as Yemen, al-Baḥrayn, Oman and al-Jazira (Mesopotamia), had experienced the rule of great dynasties for thousands of years, many of which founded cities and promoted the development of sedentary culture and luxury to the highest degree. The crafts that developed from these civilisations were not wiped out with the civilisation itself, but remained and were renewed until the advent of Islam. The location of al-Ḥijāz – too distant from the Romans, Persians and the Yemenites for any long-term intervention – meant that these more advanced crafts did not develop in large scale until Madina became the centre of the caliphate, first as a political centre up until the first civil war and thereafter as a centre of scholarly transmission.


Pre-modern Markets

Descriptions of markets in the early history are rare, most belong to the medieval times, but some features are common to both eras. The market (sūq) in the Islamic lands was, as Paul Wheatley puts is, “simultaneously a specialized type of economic organisation, a subculture within the larger entity of urbanized society, and a morphological feature of the urban landscape.”10 With respect to the first of these three characteristics, the market was mainly made up of producer-retailers dealing in small-bulk, readily transportable, and easily stored commodities, with each unit being an independent enterprise producing essentially the same type of good or service as others in its particular category.11 

A substantial fraction of urban handicraft and service industries was structurally integrated into the markets. These activities were mostly involved in food preparation, textile weaving and garment making, craft manufacture of small hardware items, and sometimes jewelry making. There were market supervisors (in the Islamic times called muḥtasib), but value assessments were often the responsibility of the individual buyer. Therefore, there were generally no fixed prices. Rather, the zone of price uncertainty was explored by the buyer and seller through a sequence of offers and counteroffers.12 

The stalls in the markets were generally small in size and operated in a state of near-perfect competition. The commodities in which they dealt (mostly foodstuffs, hardware, and textiles) rendered it difficult for most traders to progress from stall holding to large-scale merchandising and mobilization of capital. Similarly to more recent types of bazār economies, supply and demand was equilibrated by changes in the number of producers-retailers in business, rather than by large fluctuations in price.13

There were also laws and instruments for regulation of the exchange in the markets. The skills and personality traits to operate effectively under these conditions were developed from a young age, but not always respected by the general public. Thus, there are numerous Arabic tales related to the saying, al-tujjār hum al-fujjār (“traders are the wicked”). But as previously mentioned, trading was a highly respected occupation among the early Muslims. The Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “The traders will be raised up on the Day of Rising as wicked people, except those who fear Allāh, are righteous and speak the truth.” (شمnarrated by al-Tirmidhī)


Crafts and trading in the Islamic tradition

There is no need to underline the emphasis on making a living in Islam, whether by crafts, trades or other lawful means. It is evident from scholarly works on the subject, which is based on the fact that the Prophet, ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and his companions traded or actively made their living by other means, while encouraging others to do the same. They were also extremely cautious to keep the marketplace free of corruption and avoid trading without knowledge of the basic legal parameters. Some examples of famous companions engaged in trading (tijāra) are: 

1. Abū Bakr as-Siddīq 

2. ‘Umar b. al-Khaţţāb

3. ‘Uthmān b. ‘Affan

4. Khadīja bt. Khuwaylid

5. Az-Zubayr b. al-‘Awwām

6. ‘Abd ar-Rahmān b. ‘Awf

7. ‘Abdallāh and ‘Ubaydullah, the sons of ‘Umar b. al-Khaţţāb.

These are some of the companions mentioned in ‘Abd al-Ḥayy al-Kattānī’s Niẓām al-Hukūmat an-Nabawiyya (Tarātīb al-Idāriyya) and the list is far more extensive when we look at each specific occupation and field of trade.14 But rather than dwelling on the well-known merits and laws of trading, we will turn to the actual crafts at the time the companions.



Crafts and trading in Madina at the time of the Prophet

To get a sense of what crafts were available in early Madina, we will go through al-Kattānī’s list of the main occupations and fields of trade in the city. When necessary, we will also explain what the crafts entailed and other historical points. 


Cloth merchant (bazzāz): Among the famous cloths merchants were ‘Uthmān b. ‘Affān,  Ṭalḥa b. ‘Ubaydullah, ‘Abd ar-Rahmān b. ‘Awf and Suwayd b. Qays al-‘Abdī.


Perfumer (‘attār): A profession that appears to have been shared by quite a few women, indicated by narrations mentioning certain women of Madina as perfume sellers.


Weaver (nassāj): Seems to have been a craft for both men and women. According to Ibn al-Qayyim, "There was no weaver in Madina. Garments came to them from the Yemen, Syria, and other places, and they bought and wore them." The craft is nevertheless mentioned in several ḥadīths, for instance that the Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, had certain garments made for him and “died while he had a wool shirt in the weavers."15


Spinner (mughzil): A respected craft among the women. Many ḥadīths mention it as the work of a dutiful woman and the best diversion of a believing woman.16


Tailor (kḥayyāṭ): As the companion Sahl b. Sa‘d said, "The work of the dutiful (abrār) among the men is tailoring and the work of the dutiful among women is spinning."


Dyer (abbāgh): It is related in the Sunan of Ibn Majah that the Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said, "The most lying of people are dyers and goldsmiths," which is explained as those who dye clothes and make jewellery, as they postpone promises.17 


Tanner (dabbāgh): The occupation of tanning skin and trading leather goods in the market. There were also those who were occupied with sewing the skins (khirāza).


Builder (bannā): An important craft in which many participated such as in the collective building of the early mosques. It also included building houses, storehouses, marketplaces and so forth.


Wood-gatherer (ḥaṭṭāb): There were also those people who gathered and sold wood, for building, making fires or other purposes.


Carpenter (najjār): Mentioned in the ḥadīth about the seven carpenters who built the minbar of the mosque in Madina. Its importance is also indicated by the use of its products, ranging from war engines used in jihād to the cradles made for the children.  


Basket weaver (al-khawāṣṣ): In Madina, the craft consisted of making large baskets from the leaves of the date-palm. One of the famous basket weavers was Salman al-Farisi.


Digging a goldmine (ḥafr ma’dan adh-dhahab): Including its management and the preparation of the gold before reaching the goldsmiths.  


Goldsmith (ṣawwāgh): It is explained as the act of moulding something in a form and fashioning its casting.18 It appears to have been associated with corruption, base aspirations and lack of manliness, but existed among Muslims as well as dhimmis in Madina. Apart from jewellery and other gold products, one usage was strengthening teeth with gold, as the Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, indicated that it does not go foul.


Engraver (naqqāsh): For instance, engraving on various products from goldsmiths. 


Painters/image-makers (muṣawwir): It is mentioned in the ḥadīth collections in relation to the prohibition of painting animate objects, while permitting images of trees. As Ibn ‘Abbas recommended a man whose livelihood came from the craft of painting, “If you must make something, then make this tree and anything which is not alive."19 This craft of painting is also mentioned in relation to producing images for engravings on rings and coins.


Blacksmith (addād): We find in al-Ajwiba al-Muhimma by Shaykh al-Muthtār al-Kuntī: "The root of working in silver and iron in the Islamic state is that when the Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, conquered Khaybar, there were thirty blacksmiths among those captured. They were middlemen-artisans and blacksmiths." The Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said, "Leave them among the Muslims to help them with their crafts and to strengthen them by it against the jihād of their enemy.” It was an important craft in Madina, but seems to have been regarded as mean and low in relation to other crafts, as the reports  often add explanations that the ironsmith is not harmed by the meanness of his craft as long as he is just and has taqwā.


Making and selling weapons: Such as sword-makers, spear-makers and arrow-makers (ṣani’ as-suyūf wa ar-rimāh wa an-nabl).


Agriculture and planting (az-zirā’a wa al-ghirāsa): An occupation of great importance for Madinan society, as indicated by the amount of concern that the Companions had for it and as well as the numerous ayāt and ḥadīths referring to agriculture. It was originally the Anṣār who mastered agriculture at the beginning of Islam. The Muhājirūn came from Quraysh in Makka, which was a culture of trade, not a land of agriculture. Al-Bukhārī and Muslim narrate that Abū Hurayra said, "Why is it that the Muhājirūn and the Anṣār do not relate the like of my ḥadīth? I will tell you - my brothers among the Anṣār were distracted by working on their lands and my brothers among the Muhājirūn were distracted by handshakes in the markets."

After the hijra, the Muhājirūn adapted to the new environment and began to occupy themselves with agriculture.They were, however, careful not to let it distract them from jihād in order to defend and spread Islam. Thus, al-Qastallanī notes, “Work in the land is the first of what was opened to the dhimmis. The Companions disliked pursuing that." Nevertheless, it is obvious that Madinan society relied on agriculture for their sustenance and that it remained the main feature of their economy.

It is narrated that when ‘Umar became caliph, he strengthened agriculture and encouraged farmers. ‘Abd al-Ḥayy al-Kattānī writes: 

He used to tell the governors not to give permission to any of those in the armies of the Muslims to plant or cultivate conquered lands as it says in the History of Ibn Jarir [at-Tabari] and others. He said that they should not give a land grant to any of them. That is due to certain matters. The first of them is so that the Muslims will not compete with the ahl adh-dhimma and those who have a treaty about their land and constrict them in their livelihoods. The second matter is so that the armies will not become fond of working with the land during the time of conquest so that their selves would incline to rest from the hardship of war. While the community is at war, it does not have time to discard the community of fighting and withdraw from the war. The third is so that the land will remain in the hands of its people as a material possession from which the state can seek support to undertake its military and administrative concerns. Those with grants in the army do not then monopolise them.20 

Thus, agriculture was an important part of the political and socio-economic life of Madina and the early caliphate, with consequences far beyond individual livelihood. In relation to agriculture, we may also mention those who made profit from giving away land on the condition that a fourth or a third of its produce reverted to them (i’ṭā al-arḍi bi ar-rubu’i wa ath-thuluth). It is mentioned that Jābir, Sa’d and Ibn Mas’ūd gave their land for a fourth and a third.21


Water-guide and drawing water (istidlāl ‘alā maḥalli al-mā wa istikhrājihi): An important occupation in all desert cultures. Al-Kattānī explains it as “a science by which one knows how to bring up waters hidden in the earth as well as their appearance and use to revive dead lands and cultivate them.”22 There were also those who occupied themselves with carrying the water.


Hunting (ṣayd): There were various types of hunting, which ‘Abd al-Ḥayy al-Kattānī organises according to what they hunted with: dogs, falcons, spears, arrows, featherless arrows, with their hands, traps, nets and so forth.


Food merchant (bā’i’ aṭ-ṭa’ām): Including ordinary products like milk and fruit or more unusual foodstuffs such as sugar, which was unusual in Madina.


Butcher (laḥḥām), slaughterer (jazzār) and cutters (qaṣṣāb): There were also those who cooked for others (ṭabbākh) and sold particular food in the markets.


Baker (ṣāḥib al-khubz): According to Ibn al-Qayyim, in at-Ṭuruq al-Ḥukmiyya, “there was no one who milled and made bread for a fee nor anyone who sold flour and bread. They used to buy grain and mill it and make bread in their houses.” There are, however, also some reports that indicate that people baked bread and sold it. 


Money-changer (ṣarrāf): The Messenger of Allāh, sallalāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said about exchange, "If it is from hand to hand, there is no harm. If it is deferred, it is not good."' Exchange here refers to selling gold for silver.23


Agent (broker) (ad-dallāl wa huwa al-simsār): What is referred to people who undertake a business and guards it, or, people entrusted with buying and selling for someone else. 


Importer (jallāb): The traders of al-Ḥijāz continued to send caravans towards Syria in the north and Yemen in the south, which the Quraysh were famous for long before Islam.


Cupper and barber (ḥajjām wa ḥallāq): There are a few companions mentioned in the ḥadīth collections as being cuppers of the Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and its popularity in Madina is well known. 


Hairdresser (māshiṭa): These were women who cut hair and beautified women. The craft is mentioned particularly in relation to marriages. 


Nurse (mumarriḍa): These were women nurses who accompanied the Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, on raids and expeditions. They gave water to people, served them, treated the wounded and brought the dead to Madina. For instance, al-Bukhārī related that ar-Rubayyi‘ said. "We used to go on raids with the Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam. We would give water to the people and serve them and bring the dead and wounded to Madina."24 Al-Qurtubī explained, "It means that they prepared medicines for the wounded and adjusted them and did not touch men who were not lawful for them. These were women who were accustomed to go about veiled. This is all according to the custom of the Arab women in their enthusiasm, fearlessness, courage and modesty, especially the female Companions. If it is absolutely necessary for them to touch them themselves, that is allowed. Imperative needs make prohibited things lawful.”25


Midwife (qābila): It was an important and highly ranked occupation because of its great importance for families and future generations. 


Female circumciser (khāfiḍa): An occupation for women mentioned in various ḥadīths.


Wet-nurse (murdi’a): A common occupation in Madinan society, indicated by its mention in numerous ḥadīths and by numerous references to brothers and sisters whose relation to each other came into being because of a wet-nurse in common. 


Gravedigger (ḥaffār li al-qubūr): As an example of various accounts of this crafts, it is mentioned in the sīra of Ibn Isḥāq that Abū ‘Ubayda b. al-Jarrāḥ dug graves according to the practice of the Makkans and that Abū Ṭalḥa Sahl b. Zayd used to dig according to the practice in Madina and make them with a niche in the side for the corpse (laḥd).

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Concluding remarks

This overview of the crafts in Madina has shown us the great variety of occupations and means of subsistence that were available to early Muslims. It has given us a glimpse of what Ibn Khaldūn termed ‘the place of life’ in Madina. Despite the wide variety of crafts, the general nature of the crafts in Madina were simple in comparison with later world cities such as Baghdad or Damascus. As Ibn Khaldūn puts it, “Things are not transformed from potentiality into actuality all at one stroke, especially not technical matters. […] Therefore, the crafts are found to be inferior in small cities, and only the simple (crafts) are found there.” The crafts of Madina corresponded to the lifestyles of the early Muslims and provided them with what they required to uphold the guidance brought by the Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and to spread it.

The picture in the historical works is that of people exchanging services and contributing in their own way to social welfare. As many narrations indicate, people were urged to strive to make themselves free of others at the same time supporting each other by means of ṣadaqa. The more composite crafts were transmitted by personal instruction, which indicates an important social function of the crafts in holding together Madinan society. Just as knowledge of the religious sciences was transmitted from teacher to student, the new generations of craftsmen were instructed by older generations.

As we have seen, many crafts were reserved for men and others for women, while some were open to both. It is a natural consequence of the traditional division of men and women in most historical societies, but it is still worth noting how much daily contact between them there must have been in the marketplaces and in the exchange of services. However, crafts and occupations were not only associated with men or women, but also with certain attitudes, characters and prestige, both based on prophetic teachings and remnants from pre-Islamic Arab culture. 

We may also note that the crafts, particularly the exchange of their products in the marketplace, were regulated by clear legal parameters in which trade was allowed to flourish. It is narrated, for instance, that ‘Umar used to go around in the markets and strike some of the merchants with a whip, saying, “None except those who understand sell in our market. If not, he will consume usury whether he likes it or not.”26 There is of course a lot to be said about the actual law of the marketplace, and for more information, we recommend last week’s lecture by Dr. Adi Setia, entitled Trade and Commerce.

As we said earlier, only when the available labour of a well-organised city covers and surpasses the necessities, is the surplus spent on luxuries and more advanced crafts develop. During the great conquests at the time of ‘Umar and ‘Uthmān, enormous sums of wealth came to Madina and were distributed among the people. It is even reported that ‘Umar rebuked large groups of Muslims who abandoned the markets in Madina because they said, "Allāh has made us too rich to need the market by the victories which He has opened up to us."27 Economic prosperity continued in Madina for centuries, but after the relocation of the caliphal capital, it lost its political importance and could never compare to Damascus or Baghdad in terms of luxuries or advanced crafts. It did not occur on a large scale in the Islamic lands until the ‘Abbasid era when the caliphate developed into an empire proper with all the splendour of courts and kingship. But Madina still stood in the shadow of the political centres. 

In general, more advanced crafts developed elsewhere in cities where new dynasties accumulated wealth and authority. It  corresponds to the notion of Ibn Khaldūn regarding the importance of the ruling dynasty in demanding crafts and their improvement. Dynasties in pre-modern cultures are often, according to Ibn Khaldūn, the biggest markets through which everything can be marketed, unlike the demands of the common people for a particular craft.28 Since Madina was not the location of any major dynasty for a long period, it did not develop into a metropolitan city like Baghdad. The most enduring craft of Madina was transmitting and activating the knowledge of the Book, the Sunna and its understanding, that is the fiqh of the people of knowledge from generation to generation since the Prophet, sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam. 

For those of our students who want to pursue the historical study of that particular craft, scholarship, we recommend Dr. Yasin Dutton’s lecture “Some Thoughts on the Transmission of Qur'an and Sunna” and then to return to our previous course The Madhhabs of Islam. For those who want to pursue what we could call a continuation of this course and study of the fiqh of trade and the market, however, we recommend our upcoming course on the subject of buyū’ and other forms of mu‘āmalāt. For those who are seeking the craft of scholarship itself, the Faculty will begin teaching the classical Islamic sciences in 2014 with courses on subjects such as  fiqh, hadīth, tafsīr, ‘aqīda, tajwīd and Arabic. 

That brings us to the end of today’s lecture. Next week’s lecture is the conclusion to the course by the Dean of the Muslim Faculty, Abdassamad Clarke. Recommended reading in relation to today’s lecture is ‘Abd al-Ḥayy al-Kattānī’s at-Tarātīb al-Idāriyya and the fifth chapter on crafts and livelihood in Ibn Khaldūn’s al-Muqaddima. Thank you for your attention.


References

al-Kattānī, ‘Abd al-Ḥayy. Niẓām al-Hukūmat an-Nabawiyya (Tarātīb al-Idāriyya). 2 vols.  Ed. ‘Abd Allāh al-Khālidī. Beirut: Dar al-Arqam ibn Abi al-Arqam.

Ibn Khaldūn. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History [al-Muqaddima], vol 2. Trans. Franz Rosenthal. New York: Princeton University, 1980.

Wheatley, Paul. The Places Where Men Pray Together: Cities in Islamic Lands, Seventh through the Tenth Centuries. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2001.





1 Ibn Khaldūn, al-Muqaddima, 315.

2 Ibn Khaldūn, al-Muqaddima, 346.

3 Ibn Khaldūn, al-Muqaddima, 346-7.

4 Ibn Khaldūn, al-Muqaddima, 347.

5 Ibn Khaldūn, al-Muqaddima, 347.

6 Ibn Khaldūn, al-Muqaddima, 348.

7 Ibn Khaldūn, al-Muqaddima, 348.

8 Ibn Khaldūn, al-Muqaddima, 352.

9 Ibn Khaldūn, al-Muqaddima, 353.

10 Wheatley, The Places Where Men Pray Together, 239.

11 Wheatley, The Places Where Men Pray Together, 239.

12 Wheatley, The Places Where Men Pray Together, 239-240.

13 Wheatley, The Places Where Men Pray Together, 240.

14 See al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2, 21-4.

15 Abū Dawud, quoted in al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya.

16 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2, 79.

17 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2. 61.

18 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2. 45.

19 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2. 47.

20 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2. 35-6.

21 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2, 68.

22 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2, 68.

23 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2, 28.

24 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2, 69.

25 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2, 72.

26 Abū Talib al-Makki qouted in al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2, 18. 

27 Al-Kattānī, Tarātīb al-Idāriyya, vol. 2, 18.

28 Ibn Khaldūn, al-Muqaddima, 352.