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4. Tarbiya

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى ءاله وصحبه أجمعين وسلّم

Title: Tarbiya

Author: Dr. Amjad Hussain

Publication date: 21/9/2013

Assalamu alaykum. Welcome to the Muslim History Programme of the MFAS. This is the fourth of 12 sessions which make up the Early Madina module. The lecture will last approximately 40 minutes during which time you should make a written note of any questions that may occur to you for clarification after the lecture. 


This paper on Islamic Education is divided into three parts.  The paper will begin by giving an overview of the history of education in the Muslim world.   The lecture will then go on to introduce the different Islamic educational terms such as tarbiya, ta’dib and ta‘lim and investigate the relationship between them. It will finally go on to focus on the importance of the tarbiya brought by the Prophet Muhammad a. It will demonstrate the importance of tarbiya in the Madinan society which will be discussed in the context of the original pattern of understanding, upbringing and the cultivation of good character. The lecture will highlight how this edification gave the community of Madina the understanding, upbringing and character that today all Muslims aspire towards. 

​Aims of the Lecture:

To evaluate briefly the evolution of the sciences and educational institutions of the Muslim world throughout history

To Introduce the three different terms used for education in Islam

To understand the importance of Tarbiya  in the first community of Madina 

To understand the social aspect of that Tarbiya for Muslims today

Perhaps the best way to define the general term ‘education’ is to demonstrate the relationship between the three indispensable foundations that make up the basic education of any civilization, i.e. the teacher, the student and the aim or philosophy of the education provided. The term ‘Islamic education’ is sometimes misinterpreted when looked at from a Western point of view, for it is often misunderstood to be a complete interconnected system run by a religious establishment. In addition, the misunderstanding of the term ‘Islamic education’ is further exacerbated by the false impression that this kind of education only provides for instruction in ‘religious’ sciences and does not cater for the sciences that are not revealed. Arguably, this is not the case with education in the Islamic civilization. 

In all examples of education during the early Islamic period, as in other civilizations, there was self-evidently, a relationship between the student, the teacher and the philosophy of education. However, learning ethics, morals and the acquisition of knowledge (whether religious or not) were private and un-systematic activities. Hence, no single educational authority granted qualifications, even if they existed.  Moreover, education was not under state control.  It is astonishing that, in comparison with our contemporary period, classical Islamic Caliphal government, allowed unprecedented and consequently, unequalled freedom to the populace, as illustrated by the following text describing the Muslim society during the classical era. 

Other than collecting taxes, the government did not interfere in the daily affairs of society. People were born, educated, married; they made their living and bequeathed their wealth; they engaged in trade and other kinds of business – all without interference from the central government. Virtually all of daily life was under the purview of Islamic law, articulated and administered by legal scholars who operated for the most part independent of the central government.1

According to most sources, the Muslims remained in Makka for thirteen years from the first revelation until the emigration to Madina.  The political situation in Makka at this time did not allow the Messenger of Allah   to establish institutions of learning nor to have study circles openly. However, classical sources point to the house of Arqam in Makka, near the foothills of Mount Safa, as the first seat of Islamic learning. Arqam ibn Abū Arqam (May God be Pleased with him) was one of the Prophet’s Companions in Makka and his house was used by the Messenger of Allah a to teach Muslims about their dīn.2Most historical evidence points towards Dār al-Arqam being used for three years before the infamous boycott of Banū Hāshim, when it was finally abandoned. However, it is in Madina that the first Muslim dawlah was created and therefore it was here that the parameters of the social structures of Islam were revealed.  The first six months of the Prophet’s residence in Madīna were occupied by the construction of the Prophet’s mosque and houses for the emigrants. On one side of this mosque there was a place that became used for learning, known as the Ṣuffah.  Hamidullah argues that the Ṣuffah was not only used  as a place for poorer Muslims to sleep at night or simply for those who wanted to lead a saintly life But he maintains that in addition to these uses it was also the first place of learning in Madina. Within a short space of time, education began to be taught in the other nine mosques of Madina as well, which had study circles that served in providing education for the inhabitants.3 

From the city of Madina, developed all other education institutions of the Islamic civilization.  Throughout the different periods of Islamic history elementary schools entitled kuttāb and maktab arose.  However, these were all separate from each other and were mostly independent of state authorities.  The historian Makdisi points out that the maktab and kuttāb imparted such excellent training during the Islamic period that numerous students went into further study of the adab sciences, law studies and into government administration apprenticeship.4 

At higher levels of education, especially in the early days of Islam, most students had to travel long distances to various scholars in order to learn from them.  During this era of the early Islamic civilization, the distinction between elementary education and higher education was very clear and the mosque was the main educational centre for higher education. The mosques were used as higher education schools to teach adults Islam and literacy. By the Umayyad period two types of mosques emerged: al-masjid, the local mosque for the five daily prayers, and al-jāmi‘ the major mosque at which the Jumu‘a prayer was held. The mosque curriculum grew to teach all the revealed sciences and the adab sciences. In the ‘Abbasid period, the majority of the mosques of both types began to be utilised for study circles.5  It is interesting to note that the English term ‘university’ is derived from the Latin, ‘universitas magistrorum et scholarium’, which can be translated as, ‘community of teachers and scholars’. According to Hugh Goddard, the Western university is an Islamic innovation, in that the Islamic world was the first civilization to introduce an institution of learning that centered on various faculties, as opposed to the learning of antiquity that centered on specific individual teachers.6 Historically, the first specific higher education institution with a building devoted primarily to learning in the Islamic world was the Jami’ al-Qayrawiyyīn in Fez founded in 899 CE by the Tunisian noble woman, Fātimah al-Fihrī.7The higher education institute of al-Azhar in Cairo was second in 969 CE, established by the Ismaili Shi’ite dynasty.8Al-Azhar did not become a fully-fledged madrasa of the Sunnah wa al-Jamah until the eleventh century when Sultan Salāh ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb (1138-1193) conquered Egypt from the Fatimid Caliphate.  However, it was during the early period of the Seljuk rule in Baghdad, that the first independent madrasa was instituted by the minister Nizam al-Mulk (d. 1092).  By 1065 CE he had founded the Nizamiyya madrasa of Baghdad, and after this year, the pace of madrasa building accelerated throughout the whole Muslim world.9The higher education institute termed madrasa continued to evolve as an educational institution until the end of the Ottoman period.  

Hence, it is important to recognize that the Islamic Education system has developed over fourteen centuries whereby educational institutions changed over time and evolved into other institutions with different curricula and administrations.  In other words, Islamic education is the product of a fourteen hundred year old Islamic civilization that spanned Arabia, Spain, India and Indonesia.  The existence of this civilization has meant that its teachings have been widely imparted.  Islamic education has always been both unified in its worldview and at the same time diverse, due to variations in culture, geography and history. Islamic education is singular in its Qur’anic worldview, yet, it still cannot be understood as a single concept but as a phenomenon with many aspects, all influenced by intellectual, social and political forces of its geography and time.

My recently published book entitled, ‘A Social History of Education in the Muslim World: From the Prophetic Era to Ottoman Times’, has in fact concentrated mainly on institutions such as, the masjid, al-jāmi’, madrasa, kuttāb, maktab, bimaristan, the library and the chancery school (diwan), where knowledge of the various sciences, both transmitted and rational, was taught.  This means that the book focuses primarily on the development of all the sciences found within the Muslim world, the imparting of this knowledge and the educational culture existing within the Islamic civilization.  The book demonstrates that in less than four centuries after the first Islamic conquest, jurists, scholars of the Qur’an and hadith, philosophers, mathematicians, botanists, physicians, geographers, alchemists and their peers in other scientific disciplines, had accomplished the remarkable feat of unwrapping the vast intellectual legacy from the past civilizations to create an Islamic universe which appeared orderly, functional and workable.10  . 

Nevertheless, what needs to be acknowledged is that while the concepts of imparting knowledge i.e.  ta`lim and the learning of literature and social mannerism i.e. ta’dib have been dealt with in detail within the growing literature of education, the concept of tarbiya needs to be looked at in more depth since it has not received proper attention yet.   It is very much true that the Prophet a was a model in respect of ta‘lim and ta’dib as he was in every other area of life.  What marks out the first community is the fact that the city and its people were molded, nurtured, given understanding and character by being in the presence of the Prophet Muhammad a. This i​s known as the tarbiya of the Prophet a. I would like to investigate at this juncture, the concept of tarbiya and how it impacted the first community rather than the emphasis on imparting knowledge, and the development of the various Islamic sciences, which was historically the second stage of Muslim Education.

Let us now have a closer look at the three main terms for education in the Arabic language.  The majority of the scholars agree that three Arabic terms express the meaning of education in the Islamic sense. Two of these terms are taken from the Qur’an and the third is derived from the ḥadīth literature.11 The first term ‘tarbiya’, which means ‘fostering growth’, derives from the Qur’an and its root is ‘rabbā’, which means to ‘increase and grow’.12 In the Qur’an Allah u says: 

وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُل رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا

“Take them under your wing, out of mercy, with due humility and say: ‘Lord, show mercy to them as they did in looking after me when I was small’.”13

Imam Baydawi (d.685 AH) described tarbiya as the nurturing of a person step by step until it is completed, akin to the way that the Lord of the universe nurtures His creation.  The first term therefore indicates that Islamic education is there to nurture a person not only in in their youth but throughout their lives.  

The second term for education used in the Qur’an is ‘ta‘līm’ and it comes from the root word ‘ilm, which means ‘knowledge’. It has been used within the Qur’an as: 

عَلَّمَ الْإِنسَانَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ  الَّذِي عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ

“He who taught by the pen, taught man what he did not know.”14

This term specifically means the imparting of knowledge. The last term, ‘ta’dīb’, derives from the ḥadīth reporting that Prophet Muhammad a said:

أَدَّبَنِي رَبِّي فَأَحْسَنَ تَأْدِبِي

My Lord educated me and then made my education most excellent.”15

The root of ta`dīb is adab, which in a wider sense implies good manners and ethics. In addition to ‘good manners and ethics’, it means ‘literature’ or the ‘literary and philological sciences’.  In the Arabic language the term Adab was originally used in reference to an invitation to a meal; it then developed on to mean an invitation to people to adopt the best of manners.  During the period of the Umayyads and the Abbasids it became a term used for imparting knowledge of literature and displaying the correct mannerisms within the social sphere.  In a wider sense this is how it implies good manners and ethics.  During the 9th century the scholar Al-Jahiz (d. 868) defined adab as an action which is carried out thoroughly with the knowledge of a wide range of sciences related to it.  During the 14th century, the scholar Ibn Khaldun went on to define adab as knowledge of literature and skills in poetry and oratory.   

We know that these three specific educational terms were not in common use amongst people at the time of the Prophet a; they were later coined from the Qur’an and Sunnah by historians and educators who looked back to the sources and the earliest era of Islam for inspiration. This is also true for many terms that we use today for Islamic sciences such as the science of tasawwuf and fiqh; which existed during the time of the Prophet a but the terms to describe them were coined much later on in Islamic history. Therefore, ta‘līm, ta`dīb and tarbiya were embodied in action and practice in Madīna during the Prophet’s   time but were not articulated as a written educational theory.  The traditions of the Prophet Muḥammad  contain numerous sayings concerning knowledge, nurture and edification. He  himself called upon individuals to educate themselves when he said, as is narrated by Anas (ra) “The quest for knowledge is incumbent upon every Muslim”16,17and in another occasion Abū al-Dardā’ g narrated that the Prophet a said , “The learned are the heirs of the prophets, and the prophets leave neither dinar nor dirham; they only leave knowledge, and he who takes it takes an abundant portion.”18 

Other ḥadīths specifically mention education in relation to ethics and manners, for example, ‘Abdullāh ibn ‘Amr k mentioned that the Messenger of Allah a neither spoke in an insulting manner nor did he ever deliberately utter evil. He narrated that the prophet used to say, “The most beloved to me amongst you is the one who has the best character and manners.”19The ḥadīth narrated by Jābir ibn ‘Abdullāh k illustrates beautifully the meaning of manners and ethics in relation to education. Jābir narrated that the Prophet a said, “Enjoining all that is good is a ṣadaqa.”20 

Numerous examples of the importance given to the spiritual, mental and physical aspects of life can be found in the societal norms that Prophet Muhammad a imparted to the society of Madina.  The importance of acquiring etiquette and manners is demonstrated in numerous books written by Muslim scholars throughout Islamic history, dealing with topics such as, the correct courtesy due to Allah, the Messengers, oneself, parents, children, siblings,  and the community; these scholars highlight the correct manners of cleanliness, eating, attending a gathering, travelling and even sleeping etc.  The Prophet a taught his Companions to eat together when he said, as narrated by Waḥshī ibn Ḥarb g, “If you gather together at your food and mention Allah’s name, you will be blessed in it,”21 and he said to one youth when eating, as narrated by ‘Umar ibn Abī Salamah g, “Come near, my son, mention Allah’s name, eat with your right hand and eat from what is near you.”22  

The majority of these reports were recorded under the title Kitāb al-‘ilm [‘The Book of Knowledge’] or under the title Kitāb al-adab (The Book of Manners) in a variety of ḥadīth collections, thus reflecting the intimate and important connection between character, good behavior, courtesy and knowledge. The Prophet a did not focus on ta‘līm’ and ta’dīb in a systematic and specific way, but rather it could be said that knowledge of these sciences was imparted in general under the wider term of ‘dīn’.  These uncategorized sciences at that time covered a wide variety of topics such as Qur’an,  ḥadīth, jurisprudence, worship, spirituality; indeed these were the basis for the entire Muslim civilization.  These were formally taught within the semi-circle, referred to as a ‘ḥalaqah’.   It was named thus because the teacher sat against a wall or a pillar and the students would make a semi-circle around him/her. The semi-circle was formed according to rank, thus the most advanced students sat closer to the teacher.23This unique educational experience was a constant phenomenon throughout the history of Islamic education, be it in the mosque, kuttāb, maktab, or madrasa.24 

Coming back to the term tarbiya, which is derived from the root word ‘rabbā’, meaning to grow or increase, it becomes clear that the general meaning of this term covers the other two specific educational terms, imparting knowledge i.e. ta’lim and refining manners i.e. ta`dib.   Furthermore, tarbiya also carries within it the meaning of an education that gradually brings something to completeness, perfection or maturity.  This is exactly what occurred within the city of Madina during the Prophet’s a life.  Due to life and education in Mecca being constrained by persecution, the primary stage of education or nurturing the whole community, began in what would aptly be called the city of the Prophet.  The change of this rudimentary Arab society to a society governed by a written divine law, in less than twenty-three years, in itself shows the transformation the tarbiyah of the Prophet a brought, especially, during the initial ten years of the City of Madina.  Hence, even though the success of ta`lim and ta`dib is highly visible in the various eras of Islamic history, it is the tarbiya that the Prophet a imparted to the first community that must be acknowledged as the ground work of all education in Islam.

How can we begin to recognize this element of education, i.e. the role of the tarbiyah of the Prophet in relation to the first community?  Perhaps the best example of the tarbiya of the Prophet is to be found amongst the customs of the people of the city of Madina during the first century of Islam.  I find it is appropriate to begin to describe the effects of tarbiya with an example from the life of the great Madani scholar Imam Malik, who was born and lived his whole life in Madina.  His legal theory strongly adheres to the idea that the customs of early Madina were the representation of the dynamic societal norm, as set by the Prophet; hence, the principle of the, 'Practice of the People of Madina', was one of the main foundations of his legal method.  Imam Malik grew up in a very knowledgeable household of Madina and the first example of tarbiya in Madina during the first century of Islam that I would like to use is that of Imam Malik’s mother.  Let us recognize the importance of the following wise words from his mother when Imam Malik wanted to acquire knowledge of his religion and asked her permission to  allow him to go and learn.  His mother accepted his wish but pointed out, 

وقالت له: اِذْهَبْ إِلَى رَبِيعَة وَالْزِمْ مَجْلِسَهُ وَتَعَلَّمْ أَدَبَهُ قَبْلَ عِلْمِهِ

"Go to Rabī'a, sit in his company but learn first adab (manners and ethics) from him before learning the knowledge from him."25

This highlights a very important aspect of tarbiya in early Madina which is that before learning the knowledge of the dīn it is important to learn how to behave correctly with proper manners and etiquette within society.   This is achieved through being in the company of good and knowledgeable people and learning the best of manners from them.  It is important to note that the Prophet a was well known for his manners and etiquette, to the extent that even before revelation he was known as Al-Sadiq Al-Amin, and after receiving revelation, when once asked how she would describe the Prophet a ‘Ā’ishah j answered, 

كَانَ خُلُقُهُ القُرْءَانَ (حديث صحيح)  .   

“His etiquette was the Qur’an’.   

The only way that Imam Malik’s mother could have had this understanding was because she was brought up and nurtured amongst the people of Madina.  This demonstrates that Imam Malik’s mother represented the habits and customs of the Prophet’s city as he had left it.   Tarbiya means to have the correct manners (dhu Khuluq) in every sphere of life but it cannot be simply understood as adab or ‘ilm.  It seems, from all the examples narrated about the Prophet’s actions and teachings that tarbiya is the instilling in people, through informal teaching, such deep values as ḥilm, which means to be mild, lenient, clement, gentle, manage one's temper and to exhibit moderation.  Other principles that were taught through his examples to this first community were raḥma meaning mercy, ḥaya meaning modesty and shyness, sabar meaning patience, tawāḍa’ meaning humility, mazāḥ meaning happiness,   karam meaning generosity and shukkar meaning thankfulness.26  For example the Prophet a  is reported to have said, 

قال رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صلي اللَّهُ عليه وسلم " مَنْ لَا يَشْكُرُ الناسَ لَايَشْكُرُ اللَّهَ

"The one who does not give thanks to people does not give thanks to Allah”.27 

This tarbiya was taught to the people of Madina by the Prophet a throughout his time there.  This means that while ta`dīb and ta’lim have a constricted meaning; the term tarbiya is comprehensive including within it to mean both ta`dīb’ and ta’lim.  However, it is important to understand that tarbiya is also very much the dynamic methodology of how both to learn and how to live your life.   For example in the Qur’an even the manner in which to walk humbly on the earth is mentioned, which should be recognized as a form of tarbiya, Allah u says,

وَعِبَادُ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى ٱلْأَرْضِ هَوْنًۭا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ ٱلْجَٰهِلُونَ قَالُوا۟ سَلَٰمًۭا

“And the servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth easily, and when the ignorant address them [harshly], they say [words of] peace” (Al-Furqan:63). 

Allah u also teaches humanity through the wise words of Luqman to his son,

وَلَا تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَمْشِ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا ۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍۢ فَخُورٍۢ

وَٱقْصِدْ فِى مَشْيِكَ وَٱغْضُضْ مِن صَوْتِكَ ۚ إِنَّ أَنكَرَ ٱلْأَصْوَٰتِ لَصَوْتُ ٱلْحَمِيرِ

“And do not turn your cheek [in contempt] towards people and do not walk through the earth exultantly. Indeed, Allah does not love anyone who is self-deluded and boastful.  ​And be moderate in your pace and lower your voice; indeed, the most disagreeable of sounds is the voice of donkeys.” (Luqman: 18-19) 

The Prophet a also said,

إنَّمَا بُعِثتُ لِأتَمِّمَ مكارِمَ الأخلاق (حديث صحيح) 

“I have only been sent so that I may fulfill and complete the best of manners."


As said in the introduction paper by Sidi Abdassamad Clarke

What was created in those ten years was not the ‘Sunna’ or the ‘Shari’a’ but a body of people who were dynamically increased in good character and trained to go forward and meet new peoples, new situations and new challenges. This was the supreme example in all history of tarbiya. The Prophet acted as murabbi, fostering the good character and growth of his new community, as individuals, families, clans, tribes and as a society, people who when the time came were able to step forward and take the whole situation forward.

The role of Muhammad a throughout his prophethood demonstrates that tarbiya cannot be reduced to a mechanical process of training or indoctrinating, which would be a one-way transmission.  On the contrary, it is a dynamic dialogic process whereby the process produces a qualitative change, such as that which can be seen in the early community of Madina.  The Prophet’s role amongst his people was that of a gardener who nurtured and cultivated his society in Madina; he nurtured a young sapling into a strong tree.  Tarbiya as an Arabic word is often used in the context of nourishing the earth and the soil in order to grow and rear plants and trees.  What we have inherited from the Prophet a is a dynamic process whereby we need to recognize that tarbiya is the embodiment of theory and practice.  In other words, it is the informal learning of the Sunnah of the Prophet a whereby it is recognized as not merely putting emphasis on the theoretical aspect of learning but rather the importance of the spirit of the Sunnah.  Tarbiya is the informal teaching, learning and practicing of the Sunnah which has been passed down through the various ages of Muslim history.  It is not something that is merely taught in an institution nor is it something that is confined to a classroom or limited to the space between the covers of a book.  It must be recognized as an organic living entity that originated within the city of Madina and has been passed down throughout the ages.  

Tarbiya can therefore not be restricted to an age group or an elite group.  From the understanding of the tarbiya of the first community of Madina, we must recognize that we all need to be reminded, nurtured and cultivated irrespective of age and the society we live in.  From the example of the city of Madina we can learn that it is incumbent on us to develop our characters as individuals and as communities.  However, learning that makes us static and not dynamic cannot be known as tarbiya since it leads to loss of reflection and understanding.  As it has been stated again and again within the Qur’an, do you not think? do you not reflect? do you not ponder? All of these reminders point towards the approach that the Prophet a cultivated within the first community, who never felt that their education was complete simply because they had reached a certain age or level, nor did they only understand education as simply literacy, knowledge, manners but they understood tarbiya to be a constant quest of improvement for as long as there is life.  

If ta’lim and ta’dib is for the mind and the body then tarbiya is for the spirit; All are essential for the acquirement of our ultimate goal as human beings i.e. to know and draw closer to our Creator.  

That brings us to the end of today’s lecture. Recommend further reading includes:

Hussain, Amjad, A Social History of Education in the Muslim World: From the Prophetic Era to Ottoman Times, London: Ta Ha Publishers, 2013

Turner, Howard R. Science in Medieval Islam, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997.

Zarnuji, Burhan al-Din, Instruction of the Student: The Method of Learning, Chicago: The Star Latch Press, 2001.   

The subject of our next lecture is Jihad. Thank you for your attention.

1 Tamara Sonn, Islam, A Brief History, 2nd edition, (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell), 2010, p. 50.

2 Syed M. Naquib al-Attas, The Concept of Education in Islam: A Framework for an Islamic Philosophy of Education, (Jeddah: Hodder and Stoughton), 1979, p. 99.

3 Hamidullah, Khutabat-e-Bahaawalpoor (Essays of Bahaawalpoor), (Islamabad: Idarah Tahqiqat Islami), 1997, pp. 202-205

4 George Makdisi, The Rise of Humanism in the Classical Islam and the Christian West, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), 1990, pp. 40-50.

5 E. Ihsanoglu and F. Gunergun (eds.), Science in Islamic Civilization, (Turkey: IRCICA), 2000, p. 1.

6 Ibid.

7 John Esposito, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 2003, p. 328.

8 Hugh Goddard, A History of Christian-Muslim Relations, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University press), 2000, p. 99.

9 Ahmad Shalaby, The History of Muslim Education, (Karachi: Indus Publication), 1979, pp. 57-69.

10 Howard R. Turner, Science in Medieval Islam, (Austin: University of Texas Press), 1997, p.33.

11 Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Traditional Islam in the Modern World, (London: KPI), 1987, p. 123.

12 Zaid bin Ngah, The Practice of the Prophet Muhammad in Tarbiyah: Its significance for the formation of the first Muslim community, (M.Phil: University of Birmingham), 1996, p. 34.

13 Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley, The Noble Qur’an: a New Rendering of Its Meaning in English, (London: Ta-Ha Publishers), 2011, Sūrat al-Isrā’ 17:24.

14 Sūrat al-‘Alaq 96:4-5.

15 ‘Abd ar-Rahman al-Qasim (comp. and ed.), Ibn Taymiyya Fatawa, Vol. 18, (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah), 1398 AH, p. 375 and also see Muhammad al-Zarkashi, Ibn Taymiyya Fatawa, (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah), 1406 AH, p. 160. Also see Syed M. Naquib al-Attas, The Concept of Education in Islam: A Framework for an Islamic Philosophy of Education, (Jeddah: Hodder and Stoughton), 1979, p. 144.

16 Abu Muhammad ibn Yazid ibn Majah al-Rabi al-Qazwini, Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitāb al-‘Ilm, No. 224, (Beirut: Dar al-Maarifah), 1996. Also see Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah Khatib at-Tabrizi, Abdul Hameed Siddiqui (tr.), Mishkat al-Masabih, Kitāb al-‘Ilm, Vol. 1, No. 218, (Lahore: Islamic Publication Ltd.), 1979, p. 136. 

17 Both men and women are intended by the hadith. 

18 Abu Dawoud, Ahmad Hasan (tr.), Sunan Abu Dawoud, Kitāb al-‘Ilm, Chapter 1369, No. 3634, Vol. III, (New Delhi: Al-Madinah Publications), 1985, p. 1034.

19 Muhammad bin Ismail bin al-Mughira al-Bukhari, Muhammad Muhsin Khan (tr.), Sahih al-Bukhari -The translation of the meaning of Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of the Companions of the Prophet, No. 104, Vol. 5, (New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan), 1984.

20​​ Muhammad ibn Ismail ibn al-Mughira al-Bukhari, Muhammad Muhsin Khan (tr.), Sahih al-Bukhari The translation of the meaning of Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitāb al-Adab, No. 50, Vol. 8, (New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan), 1984.

21 Abu Dawoud, Ahmad Hasan (tr.), Sunan Abu Dawoud, Kitāb al-Aṭ‘imah, Chapter 1418, No. 3755, Vol. III, (New Delhi: Al-Madina Publications), 1985, p. 1063.

22 Abu Dawoud, Ahmad Hasan (tr.), Sunan Abu Dawoud, Kitāb al-Aṭ‘imah, Chapter 1423, No. 3768, Vol. III, (New Delhi: Al-Madina Publications), 1985, p. 1063.

23 Nakosteen, op. cit., p. 45.

24 Munir-ud-din Ahmed, Muslim Education and the Scholar’s Social Status up to the 5th century Muslim Era, (Zurich: Verlag Der Islam), 1968, p. 53.

25 Muhammad al-Sheri, The Concept of Tarbiyah by Imam Malik ibn Anas, (Mecca: Umm al-Qura, 2012), p.123.

26 Muhammad al-Kandahawi, Hayat ul-Sahabah Vol. 3, (Beirut: Al-Risalah, 1999)  

27 Al-Tirmidhi Hadith nr. 1954